İNSAN-I KÂMİL YAZI RESİMLERİNİN İKONOGRAFİK VE SEMBOLİK ANLAMLARINA DAİR BİR ÇÖZÜMLEME

Bu makelenin amacı Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocağı ikrar cemi ritüellerinin içerik, amaç ve fonksiyonlarının ortaya konulmasıdır. Araştırmamın saha çalışmasının düzenlendiği ortam özellikle Kütahya’da yer alan Çamlıca Bölgesi ve Aydoğdu Köyü’dür. Çamlıca Bölgesi Okçu Mahallesindedir ve idari olarak Okçu tarafından yönetilmektedir. Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocağı’na bağlı talipler ve dedeler kendi kültürlerini cem ritüelleri yoluyla devam ettirmeye çalışmaktadırlar. Katılımcılar birlik, dayanışma, barış, bereket ve ocaktan ayrı düşmekten kaçınmak için cem ritüelleri yürütmektedirler. Bununla birlikte, cem ritüelleri ile katılımcılar karşılıklı kabulü ve taliplerin yılda bir kez kontrol edilmesini sağlamak isterler. İkrar cemi ritüelinde talip olmayan kişi Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocağı’nın kurallarına uyacağına dair dedenin ve diğer taliplerin karşısında söz verir. Bunun üzerine içeriden biri haline gelir. Bu ritüelden sonra eğer karşılıklı rıza sağlanırsa kişiler kendi pozisyonlarını içerden biri olarak sağlamlaştırırlar. Kişi Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocağı’na girdiğinde ocağa bağlanır ve talip olarak bilinir. Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocağı talipleri amaçlarını ve isteklerini gerçekleştirmek ve topluluk içerisinde birliği sağlamak için cem ritüelleri aracılığıyla birbirleriyle ve spritüel dünya ile iletişim kurarlar. Anahtar Kelimeler: Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocağı, Çamlıca, cem, ikrar cem ritüeli INITIATION (IKRAR) CEM RITUAL OF THE SUREK OF CAMLICA IN THE SEYYID ALI SULTAN OCAK Abstract The objective of this paper is to introduce content, purposes and functions of the initiation (ikrar) cem rituals of the Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak. The setting of my research fieldwork is especialy in the Çamlıca Region and Aydoğdu Village where are the location of Kütahya. The Çamlıca Region is in the Okçu District and is governed locally by the Okçu in Çamlıca. Dedes and talips of the Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak in the Çamlıca sürek still try to carry on their culture through cem rituals. Participants perform cem rituals for unity, solidarity, peace, fertility, and to avoid becoming an outsider from their ocak. In addition, the participants of the * While I was writing this text, the chapter “Initiation (İkrar) Cem Ritual” in my PhD thesis entitled “Ritual Communication: A Case Study in Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak’s Cem Rituals” was used as a reference. KAYHAN KILIÇ, Seyhan. (2014). Ritual Communication: A Case Study in Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak’s Cem Rituals. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Istanbul: Yeditepe University, Institute of Social Science, Department of Social Anthropology. ** Dr., Yeditepe University, Antropology Department, Istanbul/Turkey, seyhankayhan@gmail.com DOI: 10.12973/hbvd.71.122 TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜ ve HACI BEKTAŞ VELÎ ARAŞTIRMA DERGİSİ / 2014 / 71 Seyhan KAYHAN KILIÇ 36 cem rituals want to maintain mutual consent and control of their talips, once in a year. In the ikrar cem ritual, the individual is not a talip who promises to obey the rules of the Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak in front of the dede and talips. Then, the individual becomes an insider. After this cem ritual, if individuals maintain mutual consent, they may consolidate their own position as an insider. When an individual is initiated into Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak , they belong to an ocak and are known as a talip. Talips of the Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak, through a cem ritual, communicate with each other and their spiritual world to realize their goals and desires and maintain unity in their congregation. Key Words: Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak, Çamlıca Region, cem ritual, ikrar cem ritual 1. Introduction In this paper, I have focused on the initiation (ikrar) cem ritual of the Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak in the Çamlıca Region and Aydoğdu village. The Çamlıca Region is in Okçu district and is governed locally by the Okçu in Çamlıca. Çamlıca is also known as Tekkeşinler. However, I believe this name refers to the tomb of Seyyid Ali Sultan. Tekkeşinler is a both a nickname and local name. So, Çamlıca or Tekkeşinler is officially located in Okçu district. In addition, the residents of Okçu are Sunni. The Seyyid Ali Sultan tomb is located in the Çamlıca Region (Photo 1, 2). There is a worship place (cemevi) in the Çamlıca Region. In 1990, the cemevi (Photo 3,4 ) was established in the Çamlıca Region. Both the talip, who were initiated into Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak and the dede, who are the talip’s religious leaders, live together in the Çamlıca or Tekkeşinler Region. Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak’s talips live in the villages of Aydoğdu, Körs and İnli in the Kütahya. In addition, talips immigrated either to Okçu/Güvecci, Kütahya, Eskişehir or to major cities such as Ankara, İstanbul, İzmir. 2. Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak’s Çamlıca Sürek In rural areas, rituals of the Alevis were organized through ocaks2 . Each ocak had a religious leader. Seyyid Ali Sultan was one of these. In other words, an ocak is formed as part of the dede’s families. It is the fundamental organization of Alevis today. An ocak is established in one Region. However, the ocak’s thoughts and beliefs radiate from the centre. For example, the dervish lodge of Seyyid Ali Sultan was established in Dimetoka. However, the two Regions, Kütahya and Malatya both have official tombs. The religious leaders (dedes) and their believers (talips) may live in different Regions. Each of these Regions is called a sürek. In other words, the sürek refers to unique forms. The dedes and talips, who believe in Seyyid Ali Sultan, settled in Western Thrace, Ankara, Eskisehir, Malatya and the Balkans. According to hierarchical structure, the Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak’s süreks in Kü- tahya (Çamlıca Region, Aydoğdu, Körs and İnli villages) belongs to the Hacı Bektaş Veli Ocak. Talips and dedes of the Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak in the Çamlıca sürek still try TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜ ve HACI BEKTAŞ VELÎ ARAŞTIRMA DERGİSİ / 2014 / 71 SEYYİD ALİ SULTAN OCAĞINDA ÇAMLICA SÜREĞİNİN İKRAR RİTÜELİ 37 to carry on their culture through cem rituals. For instance, The Muharram/Aşhura cem ritual is act of remembrance for the Ahl-al Bayt and Twelve Imams – especially the Imam Hussein and his followers. This memorial ceremony is based upon the Kerbela Massacre and indicator of the common memory of Alevis-Bektashis. On the other hand, if talips are initiated into the Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak, their relatives would make a sacrifice, cook and distribute food and at the time of their death, perform yet another ritual. The ritual was called the deceased (dar kurbanı cemi). The interrogation (yıl/görgü) cem rituals are performed for each year for each talips in the Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak of Çamlıca sürek. When I consider the erkan in their cem ritual, I observed two main groups of cem rituals; the birlik (union) and the görgü (interrogation). Even though they are neither initiated nor interrogated, many people are allowed to participate in cem rituals. The Muharram, birlik and Abdal Musa cem rituals are examples of union cem rituals. The ikrar, görgü, dar and düşkünlük cem rituals relate to the interrogations of the talips. These two groups of cem rituals illustrate why cem rituals still remain. The group of union cem rituals function to educate youth and children. Participation requires no prerequisites. On the other hand, the group of interrogation cem rituals maintains strict control over the group members. 3. Liturgy Descriptions And Explanations For The Initiation (İkrar) Cem Rituals in The Çamlıca Region I observed the initiation (ikrar) rituals in the Çamlıca Region on January 31 through February 1, 2014 and in the Aydoğdu Village on February 15 through February 16, 2014. This ritual is dependent upon an individual, who must feel ready to be initiated – both psychologically and economically. The individual must make personal sacrifices. When an individual is initiated into Alevism, they belong to an ocak and are known as a talip. In the Alevi belief, if an individual wishes to become an initiate, he must find a fictive brother (musahip)3 . It is a kind of imaginary relationship. Couples must take economic and social responsibility for the moral values of each other’s family. However, in the case of Çamlıca Region, I determined, during the in-depth interviews, that they have not applied this rule for approximately thirty years – not since the mid 1980s. On the other hand, the ikrar cem ritual is very important to the sürek of the Çamlıca Region, in the Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak. According to my in-depth interviews, the ikrar cem ritual is performed by those in the Çamlıca Region, Aydoğdu, Körs and İnli village. The participants in the Çamlıca Region, started to celebrate the cem ritual on January 31, 2014 at 19:00 p.m. The cem ritual ended on February 01, 2014 at 02:00 a.m. This cem ritual had three services; the initiation (ikrar), a celebration for the deceased (dar kurbanı) and the interrogation (görgü/yıl kurbanı). There were two aşıks in the ikrar cem ritual in the Çamlıca Region; the dede, Hasan Hüseyin Kayıhan (1956) and the minstrel (aşık) Muharrem Şen (1947). Both of the dedes, Ali Ordukaya (1944) and Hasan Kayıhan (1945), are from the Çamlıca TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜ ve HACI BEKTAŞ VELÎ ARAŞTIRMA DERGİSİ / 2014 / 71 Seyhan KAYHAN KILIÇ 38 Region and participated in the ikrar cem ritual. However, dede Remzi Ulusoy (1956) sat on the post. Remzi Ulusoy (1956) is the dede in Hacı Bektash Veli Ocak. The Hacı Bektash Veli Ocak, is at the top of the ocak hierarchy in the Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak, sürek of the Çamlıca Region. Ercan Ordukaya (1983) and his spouse, Elif Ordukaya (1990), were initiated to the Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak in the ikrar cem ritual during the period from January 31 through February 1, 2014. This was managed by Remzi Ulusoy (1956). Ercan Ordukaya (1983) draws his lineage from Seyyid Ali Sultan. There is a general structure in all cem rituals in the Çamlıca sürek. Hence, in this paper I shall focus on the ikrar cem rituals. After the çırağ service, the seccade (prayer rug) is spread over the erkan kilimi on the meydan. This indicates that there are certain rules of conduct. In fact, participants may create an even more sacred space within this area. The seccade is rectangular. Hence, there are four sides to the seccade. Each of sides symbolizes each of the four doors. The dört kapı (four doors) are the Şeriat, Tarikat, Marifet and Hakikat. Evidently, the door is rectangular. Hence, there are four sides to the door. Each of sides is named as a threshold in their belief system. This is because four sides of door simultaneously called as the four doors (dört kapı). Dört Kapı symbolizes four levels are Şeriat, Tarikat, Marifet, Hakikat. Şeriat is to respect and follow orthodox principles of Islam. Tarikat is the spiritual path that is to be followed in everyday life. This term was explained by an interviewee whilst I was in the field; “Tarikat is our way. Tarikat comes from Tarik. Tarikat means way. You enter your way. You must initate. You must offer kill a sacrifice. Each year, you must be questioned by the dede before the congregation. According to these rules, you mustn’t tell a lie or break anyone’s heart. You must never take away someone else’s rights!” “Tarikat bizim yolumuzdur. Tarik’ den gelir. Tarik demek yol demektir. Yola gireceksin, ikrar vereceksin. Kurbanını keseceksin. Her yıl da o dedeyi göreceksin, cemaatin huzurunda. Ona göre de yalan söylemeycen, kimseyi kırmeycan. Kul hakkı yemeycen.” (Ali Ordukaya (male, 1944) 27.11, 2012. 15:15, Çamlıca Region, Seyhan Kayhan Kılıç). The Marifet describes the acquisition of spiritual knowledge. Hakikat means spiritual truth; “When you arrive at the Hakikat door, you become one with Allah. You reach unity with divine reality. It is difficult to pass the Hakikat stage. Whoever passes though that door, is truely exceptional that takes the cake. “Hakikat kapısına vardın mı Allah ile bir olursun. Gerçeğe ulaşırsın. Bu kapı zordur. Geçebilene aşk olsun! ” (Ali Ordukaya (male, 1944) 27.11, 2012. 15:15, Çamlıca Region, Seyhan Kayhan Kılıç) TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜ ve HACI BEKTAŞ VELÎ ARAŞTIRMA DERGİSİ / 2014 / 71 SEYYİD ALİ SULTAN OCAĞINDA ÇAMLICA SÜREĞİNİN İKRAR RİTÜELİ 39 Individuals must be married to initiate into the ocak. However, there may be exceptional situations. For example, if a female or a male is not married and if they are considered mature, they are allowed to be initiated into the ocak. It is preferred that individuals be initiated. That is to say, it is preferred that individuals be part of the congregation. If the individuals are married, both spouses must initiate to the ocak. However, procedures of initiation ritual are different for males and females. Before the ikrar rite, all those who want to initiate to the ocak must perform an ablution. There are two positive poles of an ablution service. The first pole of an ablution service refers to the symbolic and ritualistic cleansing of the participants. The other pole, metaphorically and simultaneously cleanses the hearts of the participants. During the ikrar rite, both spouses are accompanied by a rehber. Moreover, after both spouses are initiated into the ocak, they are accompanied by the rehber in both the actual and ritualistic life of couples. First, both spouses take the ablution. Then, the rehber hangs the tığbend around the neck of the male. Both spouses and the rehber must be barefooted. Females must always have their head covered, but this is not a necessity for the males. Both spouses are forbidden to wear any jewellery. They enter the cemevi, after the niyaz but before the eşik. They step over the threshold, i.e., the doorsill, thereby entering into the building where this initiation cem ritual is performed. This literal passage over the doorsill into the building will become, during the ritual which follows, a metaphoric passage into insider status as an initiated member of this Ocak. So the liminal period which is used by Turner (1969) begins when candidates cross over the threshold and enter the building. During these rituals, talips stay between a position of insider and outsider. This is the “liminality”. It means, “Neither here nor there”. After these cem rituals, if they maintain mutual consent, they may consolidate their own position as an insider. While the rehber and the two spouses enter the cemevi, the rehber keeps the end of the tığbend. The rehber keeps the tığbend until the dede takes the tığbend from the male’s neck. The female waits on the left side of the male, during this rite. She stands behind the male and holds his waist. This position has its roots in their story of the creation. The settlements of the Çamlıca Region believe that God formed Eve from the left rib of Adam. If there is only a male or female candidate, they enter the cemevi with only the rehber. After the niyaz but before the eşik, they step over the threshold and enter the cemevi. Then, the couple and the rehber take three steps. The rehber says; “Peace be upon you, O Saints of the Şeriat!” “Hü! Esselâm-ı Aleyküm ehl-i Şeriat Erenleri!” The dede replies; TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜ ve HACI BEKTAŞ VELÎ ARAŞTIRMA DERGİSİ / 2014 / 71 Seyhan KAYHAN KILIÇ 40 “Peace be upon you too, O Saints of the Şeriat!” “Aleyküm Selâm, ehl-i Şeriat Erenleri!” Then the couple and the rehber take three steps. The rehber says; “Peace be upon you, O Saints of the Tarikat!” “Hü! Esselâm-ı Aleyküm, ehl-i Tarikat Erenleri” The dede responds; “Peace be upon you too, O Saints of the Tarikat!” “Aleyküm Selâm, ehl-i Tarikat Erenleri!” Then, they take three steps. The rehber says; “Peace be upon you, O Saints of the Marifet!” “Hü! Esselâm-ı Aleyküm, ehl-i Marifet Erenleri!” The dede says; “Peace be upon you too, O Saints of the Marifet!” “Aleyküm Selâm, ehl-i Marifet Erenleri!” Then, they take three steps. The rehber says; “Peace be upon you, O Saints of the Hakikat!” “Hü! Esselâm-ı Aleyküm, ehl-i Hakikat Erenleri!” Once again, the dede reiterates and answers; “Peace be upon you too, O Saints of the Hakikat!” “Aleyküm Selâm, ehl-i Marifet Erenleri!” Metaphorically, the rehber declares that he brought the spouses, like a ram or lamb, as an obedient member of the congregation of the Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak. So, the rehber asks both the participants and the dedes; “I brought a ram or lamb as sacrifice for the Seyyid Ali Sultan. Do you take them (as a sacrifice)? Do you accept?” “Seyyid Ali Sultan’a koç kuzu kurban getirdim, aldınız kabul ettiniz mi?” The dede sits on the post and replies; “If the cem itself takes and accepts them, we shall also.” TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜ ve HACI BEKTAŞ VELÎ ARAŞTIRMA DERGİSİ / 2014 / 71 SEYYİD ALİ SULTAN OCAĞINDA ÇAMLICA SÜREĞİNİN İKRAR RİTÜELİ 41 “Ayn-ı cem aldı kabul ettiyse biz de kabul ettik.” The Ayn-ı cem states their agreement in chorus; “Allah, Eyvallah!” The rehber recites the same questions again. If a person were disgruntled or aggrieved, the dede would try to find a solution for the ill will. During the ikrar cem ritual, no one expressed any disagreement or feeling of wrong doing. Then, both the rehber and the candidate lay prostrate on the seccade. The prostration consists of several steps; one kneels on the floor on the seccade, then, one places their two hands on the seccade. Finally, one kisses the four sides of the seccade. This is both a very symbolic and ritualistic position. The four sides4 symbolize the dört kapı, following the Şeriat, Tarikat, Marifet and Hakikat. Then, the male kneels on his two knees, before the dede. The dede takes the tığbend from the male’s neck and binds it around the waist of the candidate, three times. The dede says; “ya Allah”, “ya Muhammed”, “ya Ali”, once for each turn. Then, the male binds another tığbend around the waist of his spouse, three times, in the same way. The dede recites, “Ya Allah! Ya Muhammed! Ya Ali! Şah Hasan, Şah İmam Hüseyin, Pirim Hacı Bektaş Veli!” The rehber recites the Teslim prayer; a verse from the Qur’an. This prayer is about surrender to God. Then, the candidates kiss the post. The rehber says, “My dede, I hand over the candidates”. (Dede’m teslim!) The dede says; “Did you accept to be obedient to the way of Muhammed Ali and Seyyid Ali Sultan, like a ram or a lamb?” “Seyyid Ali Sultan’a koç kuzu kurban geldin, Muhammed Ali yoluna kurban geldin, degil mi kuzum?” The talips agree; Allah, Eyvallah! The dede says; “May be your agreement be eternal” “Allah, Eyvallahınız kadim olsun” The dede reminds the spouses of the principles of the ocak; “O Allah. Thanks! If you poured something, you should then fill it up again; If you made somebody cry, you should make them laugh. If you break a heart, you should conciliate. You should walk in the right way. Do not hurt your friend. You should be willing to devote yourself to the guide. Do not lie. Do not eaten forbidden food. Do not commit adultery. Do not take up a thing which your hand has not laid TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜ ve HACI BEKTAŞ VELÎ ARAŞTIRMA DERGİSİ / 2014 / 71 Seyhan KAYHAN KILIÇ 42 down. Do not tell what you have not seen. Come not, come not, turn not, turn not; the property of those who come, the soul of those who turn. In your worship, do not associate anything or anyone with God (şirk). This is impossible in the way of Muhammed Ali. Are the Four Doors5 and the Forty Duties6 , true?” The most important issue of this gülbeng is that the dede reminds the spouses about the principles of an ocak. They should not come as an initiate into the ocak, if they predict that they may turn away. When individuals belong to an ocak, if necessary, they must be ready to sacrifice their life and their possessions. “Allah, Eyvallah! Kapısında döktügünüz varsa doldurun, ağlattıgınız varsa güldürün, yıktığınız varsa kaldırın, doğru gezin, dost gönlünü incitmeyin, Mürşidinize teslim-i rıza olun. Yalan söylemeyin, haram yemeyin, zina etmeyin. Eliniz ile koymadığınızı almayın, gözünüz ile görmediğinizi söylemeyin. Gelme gelme, dönme dönme, gelenin malı, dönenin canı. Şirk ile ibadet olmaz Muhammed Ali yolunda, Dört Kapı, Kırk Makam hak mı?” The participants state their agreement in chorus; “Allah, Eyvallah!” The dede states; “Your (spouses) performed the niyaz before the eşik to the Four Doors; Şeriat, Tarikat, Marifet, Hakikat. Our seccade is the place where the Forty Assembly (Kırklar Meydanı). Is the mourning for the Twelve Imams true?” “Dört Kapı’ya niyaz ettiniz. Şeriat, Tarikat, Marifet, Hakikat. Seccadenin üstü Kırklar Meydanı, On iki Matem hak mı?” The participants state their agreement in chorus; “Allah, Eyvallah!” The dede declares; “We shall fast with all our body during the month of Muharram and (in other words) during the mourning of the Twelve. The month of Muharram is the month of mourning. Are the Four Ancestors true?” “On iki Matem’de, Muharrem ayında On iki orucumuzu bütün vücudumuz ile tutacagız, Muharrem ayı matem ayıdır. Dört Ata hak mı?” The participants state their agreement in chorus; “Allah, Eyvallah!” The dede continues; TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜ ve HACI BEKTAŞ VELÎ ARAŞTIRMA DERGİSİ / 2014 / 71 SEYYİD ALİ SULTAN OCAĞINDA ÇAMLICA SÜREĞİNİN İKRAR RİTÜELİ 43 “Our ancestors are your ancestors, as yours are ours. You should have regard for those that Ahl-al Bayt loved. You also do not respect those that Ahl-al Bayt did not love. (You should love who is loved by Ahl-al Bayt or you shouldn’t like who is not loved by the Ahl-al Bayt. (Be friend of Ahl-al Bayt’s friends.) Do you promise to take responsibility for each other? Do you promise to support each other during good and bad days?” “Birbirimizin ataları atalarınızdır. Ehl-i Beyt’in sevdiğini sevip, sevmediğini sevmeyeceğiz. Birbirinizi taşımaya söz veriyor musunuz, iyi günde kötü günde birbirinize destek olacağınıza söz veriyor musunuz? The participants state their agreement in chorus; “Allah, Eyvallah!” The dede continues; “If the devil has his way and you break your promise, do the swords of the Twelve Imams cut your neck?” “Eğer şeytanın şerrine uyar da ikrarınızı bozarsanız, On iki imam’ın kılıcı boynunuza olsun mu?” The participants state their agreement in chorus; “Allah, Eyvallah!” Meanwhile, the dede reminds the spouses of all the principles. Each participant puts their forefinger of the right hand on the meydan. When the dede completes the recitation of the principles, each participant kisses their own forefinger. The spouses then kiss the post. This is called performing the niyaz. Then, the tövbe (confession) starts. During the tövbe, participants recite, “We are sorry for all our sins and omissions…”. The participants repeat this prayer three times; “There is only one Allah. Allah is one. Mohammed is his prophet. Ali is his saint. A saint is a spiritual guide; Allah may not separate us from the group of perfects; Allah willing!” “Eşhedü en lâ ilahe illallah ve eşhedü enna Muhammeden abduhû ve Resullullah (Hak birdir. Muhammed Resulullah) Aliyyül Veliyullah, Veliyül Mürşit, Mürsid-i Kâmillullah, kâmiller katarından ayırmaya Allah! Ayırmaz insallah!” Then, the aşık recites a düvaz (Photo 5) Every day, we make mistakes. To err is human TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜ ve HACI BEKTAŞ VELÎ ARAŞTIRMA DERGİSİ / 2014 / 71 Seyhan KAYHAN KILIÇ 44 We repent and ask Allah for forgiveness We dedicate ourselves to Muhammed Ali We repent and ask Allah for forgiveness Günü günü hata etmek işimiz Tövbe günahımıza estağfurullah, estağfirullah, estağfirullah Muhammed Ali’ye bağlı başımız Tövbe günahımıza estağfurullah, estağfirullah, estağfirullah Imam Hassan came to help us Shah Imam Hussein is our remedy Praise be to God! We saw Zeynel Âbidin We repent and ask Allah for forgiveness İmam Hasan geldi bize yardımcı Şah-ı İmam Hüseyin derman derdimize Şükürler Zeynel Âbidin’i gördügümüze Tövbe günahımıza estağfurullah, estağfirullah, estağfirullah Imam Bakır comes brightly Imam Cafer received God’s blessing We bless Musa, Kâzım and Rıza We repent and ask Allah for forgiveness İmam Bâkır’dır balkıyıp gelen İmam Cafer’dir elimizi alan Musa, Kâzım, Rıza’ya niyazlar kılan Tövbe günahımıza estağfurullah, estağfirullah, estağfirullah Tâki and Nâki do not shed our blood in vain Hasan-ül Askerî does not waste our labour We have as many sins as we have hairs on our head. We repent and ask Allah for forgiveness TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜ ve HACI BEKTAŞ VELÎ ARAŞTIRMA DERGİSİ / 2014 / 71 SEYYİD ALİ SULTAN OCAĞINDA ÇAMLICA SÜREĞİNİN İKRAR RİTÜELİ 45 Takî, Nakî vermesin kanımız cemiye Hasan-ül Askerî etmesin emeğimizi zaiye Saçımızın sayısı ettigimiz kov, gıybete Tövbe günahımıza estağfurullah, estağfirullah, estağfirullah I am Hatayî, I (Hatayî) have received the heavenly light of God I kept an eye open, I am also awake to the truth of God I ask for the help and goodness of you (Mehdî), I trust you We repent and ask Allah for forgiveness Hatayi’nim Hakk nuruna boyandım Gözümü açtım hem gafletten uyandım Medet mürüvvet dedim Mehdî sana güvendim Tövbe günahımıza estağfurullah, estağfirullah, estağfirullah The dede recites a gülbeng; “Let us say for the love of Ahl-al Bayt Allah Allah! Ya Allah! Ya Allah! Ya Allah!…” Then the dede continues to pray and calls upon God, the Prophet Mohammed and his spouse Hatice, the Imam Ali and his spouse Fatma, the Twelve Imams, Hacı Bektas Veli and Seyyid Ali Sultan for their help.” “Diyelim Ehl-i Beyt aşkına, Allah Allah, Ya Allah! Ya Allah! Ya Allah! Ya Muhammed! Ya Muhammed! Ya Muhammed! Ya Ali! Ya Ali!Ya Ali! ekber-i ümmet Hatice Fatma analarımız, Hasan,Hüseyin, Zeynel, Bâkır, Cafer, Musa, Kâzım, Rıza, Takî, Nakî, Askerî, Mehdî, Hünkâr Hacı Bektas Velî yardımcımız ola, erenler evliyâlar yardımcımız ola, külbünde bulundugumuz Seyyid Ali Sultan’ın da himmeti üzerinize ola, gerçege Hü! İkrarınız kadim ola, muradınız hâsıl ola!” Then both spouses drink sherbet. The sherbet is named aşk dolusu. Participants of the cem ritual believe that sherbet (dolu) comes to them from God and from all of their ancestors. It is a tradition. The sherbet is drunk in the Kırklar Meclisi. They offer the story of Kırklar to explain why sherbet is sacred. A person brings sherbet in a glass. The dede takes the sherbet in his hand and offers a blessing. After the prayer (blessing) both spouses share and drink the sherbet. Then, a very important part of ikrar cem ritual starts. It is called Âl-i âbâ Pençesi/Pençe-i Ali Aba/pençe çalmak. This means the hand of Ahl-al Bayt. Each of the dede’s fingers symbolizes each person of Ahl-al Bayt; the family of the Prophet Mohammed. TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜ ve HACI BEKTAŞ VELÎ ARAŞTIRMA DERGİSİ / 2014 / 71 Seyhan KAYHAN KILIÇ 46 Both spouses kneel before the dede. The saçlı baıc7 must kiss the dede’s right knee. The taçlı bacı must kiss the dede’s left knee. Again, this is called niyaz. While both spouses assume the niyaz position, the repber places a big piece of cloth around both spouses (Photo 6). According to their belief system, this cloth is called an aba. It resembles a shroud. Metaphorically, it reminds them that the meydan is a place to die before death (ölmeden önce ölmek). They must be ready to be interrogated, at the meydan, by the dede and before all of the talips. The ikrar cem ritual is a pilgrimage for the individuals. The aba is white, like a pilgrim’s clothes. So, at the end of the ikrar cem ritual, the dede recites, “May your Miraj be accepted”. While both spouses kneel before the dede, the dede recites the fetih prayer which is a chapter in the Qur’an. First, the dede puts his left hand on the head of the taçlı bacı and his right hand on the head of the saçlı bacı. Then, the dede moves his right hand clockwise on both spouses and touches their backs. While the dede moves his right hand clockwise, the dede says, “Bismi Şah”, “Ya Allah!”, for the first time. The dede continues to say the following words, each time he moves his right hand on both the spouses, “Ya Muhammed!”, “Ya Ali!”, “Shah Hassan!”, “Shah Hussein”, “our ancestor Seyyid Ali Sultan!”, “our Pîr, Sultan Hacı Bektash Veli!”. After the Pençe-i Ali Aba, the dede recites a gülbeng; “In the name of the Prince, Allah Allah. Let your services be accepted and your desires be fulfilled by Allah. Let saints be your helpers. May Allah answer both the desires you say aloud and those which you keep in your heart. May Allah prevent your impoverishment. May your agreement be eternal. Let the Twelve Imams be your helpers. May Muhammed Ali answer your desires. Let the services be registered in the Dervish Lodge of Hacı Bektash Veli and the Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak. Attention to the truth!” “Bism-i Şah, Allah Allah, hayır hizmetleriniz kabul ola, muradınız hâsıl ola, erenler,evliyâlar yardımcınız ola, Cenab-ı Allah, dilde dileğinizi, gönülde muradınızı vere. Allah, diplere yatırıp kapılara baktırmaya. Allah, verdiğiniz ikrarda sabit kıla, On İki İmamlar yardımcınız ola, isteğinizi dileğinizi Muhammed Ali vere, hizmetiniz Hünkar Hacı Bektaş dergâhında, Seyyid AliSultan Ocağı’nda kabul ola, gerçeğe Hü!” While the dede says “Ya Allah! Ya Muhammed! Ya Ali! Our Pir and Sultan Hacı Bektash Velî!” the rehber removes the aba from over the spouses. Then, the two spouses must perform the niyaz before all participants. They start with the dede. The spouses kiss the hands of the participants, if they are older than the two spouses. This is called sefalaşma. Lastly, the spouses perform the niyaz on the seccade. They kneel continuously. After the sefalaşma and niyaz, the spouses are allowed to stand up. They assumed the dar position. The dede recites the gülbeng; TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜ ve HACI BEKTAŞ VELÎ ARAŞTIRMA DERGİSİ / 2014 / 71 SEYYİD ALİ SULTAN OCAĞINDA ÇAMLICA SÜREĞİNİN İKRAR RİTÜELİ 47 “In the name of the Prince, Allah Allah. Let your services be accepted and your desires be fulfilled by Allah. Let saints be your helpers. May Allah answer both the desires you speak aloud and those which you keep in your heart. Let Allah be sure about vassals who have been interrogated. May Allah allow us to perform this service of Ali Aba Pençesi in the upcoming years. Attention to the truth!” “Bism-i Şah, Allah Allah, hizmetiniz kabul ola, muradınız hâsıl ola, Erenler Evliyâlar yardımcınız ola, Allah, dilde dileğinizi, gönülde muradınızı vere, Allah, sorgusu sorulmus, suali verilmis kullarınızdan emin eyleye. Allah, yeni yeni yıllara erdire, böylece Ali Aba Pençesi çalmak nasip ve müyesser eyleye, gerçege Hü!”der. Then, the two spouses are named talips. The talips perform niyaz on the seccade. The talips kneel before the dede. The dede recites a gülbeng; “Allah Allah, Allah Allah. May your apology, prayers, all services, especially the service of Âl-i âbâ Pençesi bring good luck! May God, Mohammed, Ali be your helpers. Attention to the truth.” “Allah Allah, Allah Allah, özrünüz, niyazınız, namazınız, hizmetiniz, Âl-i âbâ Pençeniz hayır ola. Hakk, Muhammed, Ali yardımcınız ola, gerçege Hü!” The talips perform the niyaz on the seccade. Then the saçlı bacı and the taçlı bacı hold the seccade above their waists. The saçlı bacı and the taçlı bacı assume the dar position8 . The dede recites the gülbeng; “In the name of the Prince, Allah Allah. May Allah accept your service. Let your Miraj be accepted. Let your face be unblemished. Let your heart be light. Let saints be your helpers. May Allah answer both the desires you say aloud and those which you keep in your heart. May the seccade absolve your secrets. Attention to the truth, Hu!” “Bism-i Şah, Allah kabul etsin, miracınız kabul olsun, seccadeniz hak ola, yü- zünüz pak, kalbiniz nur ile dola, erenler, evliyâlar yardımcınız ola. Cenab-ı Allah, dilde dileğinizi, gönülde muradınızı vere, seccadeniz de sır perdeniz ola, gerçege Hü!” Then, the saçlı bacı and the taçlı bacı kiss the seccade. The ikrar rite is complete. 4. Conclusion An individual initiated into the Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak must wait at the threshold to pass from self identity to the group’s identity. In the ikrar cem ritual, the individual is not a talip who promises to obey the rules of the Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak in front of the dede and talips. Then, the individual becomes an insider. During this ritual, talips stay between a position of insider and outsider. This is the “liminality”. TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜ ve HACI BEKTAŞ VELÎ ARAŞTIRMA DERGİSİ / 2014 / 71 Seyhan KAYHAN KILIÇ 48 Liminality means to wait at a threshold, to skip to another status. Turner (1969: 95) explained that liminality is “neither here nor there (or neither living nor dead). They are betwixt and between the positions assigned and arrayed by law, custom, convention, and ceremonial”. After this cem ritual, if individuals maintain mutual consent, they may consolidate their own position as an insider. When an individual is initiated into Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak , they belong to an ocak and are known as a talip. The ritual maintains control over the members of community. In addition, it maintains their identity. There are very verbal and nonverbal ritualistic, symbolic and metaphoric examples found in the ikrar cem ritual. I have observed that the participants assumed many symbolic and ritualistic positions. The aşık says that the candidate take three steps toward the meydan. However, the most important issue is that initiate comes to the meydan to declare to sacrifice them self, like a ram, for the correct way. The candidates drink the sherbet. It is called the drink of love (aşk dolusu). Regarding the results, there may be a relationship between aşk dolusu and how minstrels drink wine in their dreams. That is, when talips, candidates or minstrels drink, they are reinforced with divine support. Religious power is enthral and helps them. My hypothesis allows us to confirm Rappaport’s (1999:287-290) “ultimate sacred postulates”. These include many publicly accepted Alevi beliefs. When candidates are initiated during the ikrar cem ritual, the initiates are reinforced, internalized or “verified” by their numinous experiences. For example, these include drinking a sacred beverage, a sherbet, known as aşk dolusu. As noted previously, participants of the cem ritual believe that sherbet (dolu) comes to them from both God and their ancestors. These religious or emotional experiences, which Rappaport (1999:371-374) calls “numinous”, convince both initiates and believers that the gods or ancestors reward, support or teach them. This is because they believe that they have chosen the right path by becoming initiates. Rappaport recognized this process of mutual reinforcement. This reciprocal interaction between the group’s religious beliefs and personal religious experiences is a fundamental part of the lifelong process by which talips consolidate and reinforce their position as insiders (Fikes, 2010:36). When individuals are initiated into an ocak, they must not come to the meydan without the tığbend. In each cem ritual, the tığbend is coiled three times, next to the talip’s upper belly; whilst their spouse says “Allah Muhammed Ali”. If the initiate is not married, a saçlı bacı from an ocak coils the tığbend. I mentioned that the rehber stated that he brought the spouses, like a ram or lamb. The rehber then asks both the participants and the dedes if they take them (as a sacrifice). Metaphorically, the question asks if a person has dedicated them self to the way.    As I observed, the tığbend is a very ritualistic part of the ikrar cem ritual. The tığbend indicates entering TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜ ve HACI BEKTAŞ VELÎ ARAŞTIRMA DERGİSİ / 2014 / 71 SEYYİD ALİ SULTAN OCAĞINDA ÇAMLICA SÜREĞİNİN İKRAR RİTÜELİ 49 the way of Allah Muhammed Ali and the decision to dedicate oneself to the way of Allah Muhammed Ali and the ocak itself. At the same time, settlements in the Çamlıca Region believe that each person of the Forty, when they performed the Kırklar Semah, was girded by a tığbend. According to the story of Kırklar Meclisi, the Prophet Muhammad dropped his turban and suddenly the turban split into forty parts. Each participant of the Assembly of Forty took one of the forty parts and bound it around their waist. Hence the tığbend is an index to the story of Kırklar. Through gesture, the dede takes “the tığbend from the male’s neck and binds it around the waist of the candidate, three times. The dedesays; “ya Allah”, “ya Muhammed”, “ya Ali”, once for each turn.” It seems that the dede’s gesture of tying the tığbend around the candidate’s waist implies a non-verbal confirmation or preparation of their new identity as a talip. This comes as a direct response to the candidates’ prostration and the placement of a kiss on the four doors. After the ikrar cem ritual, mutual rights and responsibilities start for each talip. For example, once a year, each talip must be interrogated by the dede, in front of the participants of the cem ritual. If the talip does not perform annual interrogation (görgü/yıl) as part of the cem ritual, they may be denounced by the ocak. After the talips verbally agree to become initiates, the rules of conduct required of members in this Ocak are explicitly proclaimed by the dede.  The dedereminds the spouses of the principles of the ocak. Clearly, there are both verbal and non-verbal manifestations of this stage in the initiation cem ritual. At this point, it is essential to explain the meaning and purpose of the  ocak’s principles of acceptance; tying the belt, prostration and kissing the four sides of the seccade. This non-verbal expression of reverence indicates publicly to the congregation that the candidate, who is being initiated as a member of the congregation, accepts the four basic paths that lead to spiritual maturity. These are symbolized by the four doors or sides of the seccade. The placement of a kiss on the four doors shows a candidate respects and intends to become what every initiated Ocak member wishes to become; a devout Alevi. I have tried to describe the initiation (ikrar) cem ritual according to their causes and purposes. This ritual has tried to demonstrate how group members, or talips of the Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak, through a cem ritual, communicate with each other and their spiritual world to realize their goals and desires, abiding by rules which guide their conduct and maintain unity in their congregation. Endnotes 1 While I was writing this text, the chapter “Initiation (İkrar) Cem Ritual” in my PhD thesis entitled “Ritual Communication: A Case Study in Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak’s Cem Rituals” was used as a reference. KAYHAN KILIÇ, Seyhan. (2014). Ritual Communication: A Case Study in Seyyid Ali TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜ ve HACI BEKTAŞ VELÎ ARAŞTIRMA DERGİSİ / 2014 / 71 Seyhan KAYHAN KILIÇ 50 Sultan Ocak’s Cem Rituals. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Istanbul: Yeditepe University, Institute of Social Science, Department of Social Anthropology. 2 See more information; ERSAL, Mehmet. (2013). Alevilik Bektaşilik İnanç Sisteminde Hiyerarşik Yapı: Çubuk Havzası Aleviliği Örneği. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi. İzmir: Ege Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Türk Halk Bilimi Bilim Dalı. s.60 3 See more information BAL, Hüseyin. (2004). Alevi İslam Yolu, İstanbul: Cem Vakfı Yayınları. s. 67 BOZKURT, F. Der. (2006). Buyruk: İmam Cafer-i Sadık Buyruğu, İstanbul: Kapı Yayınları. S.24. UĞURLU, A. (1991). Alevilikte Cem ve Musahiplik. İstanbul: Ufuk Matbaası. YAMAN, M. (1994). Erdebilli Şeyh Safi ve Buyruğu. İstanbul: Ufuk Matbaası. s.78-83. YAMAN, M. (2007). İnanç, Edep Erkan. İstanbul: Can Yayınları. s.242-246. YILDIZ, H. (2005). “Alevi-Bektaşi Geleneğinde Musahiplik”, Geçmişten Günümüze AleviBektaşi Kültürü. Ankara:T.C.Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları: Ankara, 2009. s.397- 413. 4 The four sides symbolize the dört kapı, following the Şeriat, Tarikat, Marifet and Hakikat. Each of sides is named as a threshold in the belief system of Alevis-Bektashis. This is because four sides of door simultaneously called as the four doors (dört kapı). Dört Kapı symbolizes four levels are Şeriat, Tarikat, Marifet, Hakikat. Şeriat is to respect and follow orthodox principles of Islam. Tarikat is the spiritual path that is to be followed in everyday life. 5 The Four Doors are Şeriat (religious law), Tarikat (religious practices), Marifet (mystic knowledge of God) and Hakikat (immediate experience of the essence of reality). 6 The Four Duties describe the degree of development in order to be a perfect human being in the belief of the Alevis in the Çamlıca region. It also describes the obligations that accompany each successive stage. The Alevi Bektashi doctrine or faith consists of both the Four Doors and the Forty Duties 7 In the cem ritual, women are known as saçlı bacı, or those who have hair. Men are known as taçlı bacı, or those who have a crown. Bacı means sister. In addition, the dede refers to all participants as siblings (or fellows) of ayin-i cem (ayin-i cem kardeşler) or souls (canlar). 8 Each of the participants passed the threshold and then came towards the dede. They place their right foot over their left. They also place their two hands over their heart, right hand over left. Each person stands in this position and bows their head, in front of the dede. This position is called the “Dar-ı Fatma” “dara durmak”, “ayak mühürlemek” “peymançe”. They believe that this position is similar that which a person would assume for questioning whilst before Allah. The background behind this position is based upon a short story. It was explained to me by an interviewee; “One day, Mohammed wanted to drink water. At this time, Hussein was near the door and stood up. While he stood up, he stubbed his left big toe. His left big toe began to bleed. Hussein did not want to upset his grandfather Mohammed. He put ÜRK KÜLTÜRÜ ve HACI BEKTAŞ VELÎ ARAŞTIRMA DERGİSİ / 2014 / 71 SEYYİD ALİ SULTAN OCAĞINDA ÇAMLICA SÜREĞİNİN İKRAR RİTÜELİ 51 his right big toe on his left big toe. So he hid his left big toe and his grandfather did not see the blood. Hussein waited for Mohammed, in this position, as he drank the water. Hense, this position is called Fatma Dar-ı or Peymançe.” Birgün Muhammed su istemiş. O anda Hüseyin kapıya yakın olduğundan hemen kalkmış, kalkarkenede sol ayağının baş parmağını taşa vurarak kanatmış. Dedesine suyu verirken, ayağındaki kanı görmesin deyi, yavrun, sağ ayak başparmağını sol başparmağın üzerine komuş (mühürlemiş). Dedesi su içesinceye kadar öyle darda beklemiş. Ondan Fatma Dar-ı demişler. (Hasan Kayıhan (male, 1945) 26.11, 2012. 13:31. Çamlıca Region. Seyhan Kayhan Kılıç). Bibliography BAL, H. (2004). Alevi İslam Yolu, İstanbul: Cem Vakfı Yayınları. BOZKURT, F. D. (2006). Buyruk: İmam Cafer-i Sadık Buyruğu, İstanbul: Kapı Yayınları. ERSAL, M. (2013). Alevilik Bektaşilik İnanç Sisteminde Hiyerarşik Yapı: Çubuk Havzası Aleviliği Örneği. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi. İzmir: Ege Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Türk Halk Bilimi Bilim Dalı, FIKES, J. (2010). Unknown Huichol: Shamans and immortals, allies against chaos. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. KAYHAN KILIÇ, S. (2014). Ritual Communication: A Case Study in Seyyid Ali Sultan Ocak’s Cem Rituals. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi.İstanbul: Yeditepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Sosyal Antropoloji Ana Bilim Dalı. RAPPAPORT, R. (1999). Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity, Newyork: Cambridge University Press. UĞURLU, A. (1991). Alevilikte Cem ve Musahiplik. İstanbul: Ufuk Matbaası. VICTOR, T. (1969). The ritual process: Structure and anti-structure. NewYork: Aldine de Gruyter. YAMAN, Mehmet. (1994). Erdebilli Şeyh Safi ve Buyruğu. İstanbul: Ufuk Matbaası. YAMAN, M. (2007). İnanç, Edep Erkan. İstanbul: Can Yayınları. YILDIZ, H. (2005). “Alevi-Bektaşi Geleneğinde Musahiplik”, Geçmişten Günümüze AleviBektaşi Kültürü. Ankara:T.C.Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları: Ankara, 2009. Interviewees Ali Kayıhan, 1940-2013, Kütahya/Çamlıca, elementary school, dede Ali Ordukaya, 1944, Kütahya/Çamlıca, elementary school, dede Hasan Kayıhan, 1945, Kütahya/Çamlıca, elementary school, dede Hasan Hüseyin Kayıhan, 1956, Kütahya/Çamlıca, elementary school, dede/aşık Muharrem Şen, 1947, Kütahya/Aydoğdu Köyü, elementary school, aşık

Reklamlar

Alevikutuphanesi hakkında

Neden Aleviyiz? Yaşamı, evreni, dünyayı, insani ve bütün bunlarla ilintili ne varsa; doğru tanımlamak, kavramak, anlamak için Aleviyiz! Neden Aleviyiz? Kuranı kutsal kitap. Hz. Muhammed`i peygamber, Hz. Ali`yi ve On İki imamları rehber, Hacı Bektaş Veli`yi Hünkar, Pir Sultan Abdal`i Pir olarak bildiğimiz için Aleviyiz! Neden Aleviyiz? Asırlardır yok edilmek istenen, baskılara, katliamlara, iftiralar maruz kalan mazlum bir toplumun, haksızlığa ve zalimliğe boyun eğmeyen bir toplumun üyesi olmak için Aleviyiz! Neden Aleviyiz? Asırlardır insanlığa ışık tutan erenlerin, evliyaların, cümle kamil insanların şerefli ve aydınlık yolunda yürümek için Aleviyiz! Neden Aleviyiz? Yozlaşıp değerlerimize yabancılaşmamak için, Yobazlaşıp gerici gelenekleri inanç diye bilmemek için, Serçeşmeden yoksun kalmamak için, Yoksul olmamak için Aleviyiz! Bütün yozlara ve yobazlara inat ALEVİYİZ! ALEVİLİK inancımızdır

Mart 16, 2015 tarihinde KONULAR içinde yayınlandı. Kalıcı bağlantıyı yer imlerinize ekleyin. İNSAN-I KÂMİL YAZI RESİMLERİNİN İKONOGRAFİK VE SEMBOLİK ANLAMLARINA DAİR BİR ÇÖZÜMLEME için yorumlar kapalı.

Yorumlar kapalı.

The WordPress.com Blog

The latest news on WordPress.com and the WordPress community.

Alevi Kütüphanesi

Bismişâh Allâh Allâh Gerçeğe Hû

%d blogcu bunu beğendi: